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Meat breeds of cows and bulls. The productivity of beef cattle

When beef production is important, not only the conditions of keeping and feeding cows and bulls, but also their origin. Meat breed of cattle is familiar to us since the XVIII century At that time in England was the first purposefully bred cows and bulls, who are actively building up muscle tissue. Cattle with meat characteristics also quickly gained popularity as cattle dairy cattle.

beef

Beef cattle grown for beef production.

Beef

Compared to the dairy direction of the meat breeds have completely different physiological processes occurring inside the body of the cow. They focus on building muscle tissue for the most efficient use of feed. Only enough milk for calves and it determines the exterior of beef cattle:

beef

Diagram of the body of beef cattle

  • build strong, muscular, proportional;
  • rear and front are equally developed;
  • case lengthened slightly, in shape like a rectangle, not just the sides but also the top;
  • deep, powerful chest;
  • well-developed, round thighs;
  • high growth;
  • large dimensions;
  • beef cow undeveloped udder;
  • thick, durable leather.

Popular breed of beef cattle

Cattle beef can be of different types:

  • Rapidly growing breeds of cows. Weight is laid at an early age. From birth until slaughter, the calves quickly reach standard. Juicy and fatty beef is popular, she has a delicate flavor. As a rule, the calves grow even better when administered in the diet of a significant percentage of concentrated feed, and provide comfortable conditions. These include the Aberdeen Angus, Galloway, Kalmyk, and Kazakh white-headed cows, the famous Hereford and Shorthorn.
  • Meat breed that are slowly gaining condition. Unpretentious cows, which have good immunity, is able to fully provide themselves with the full grazing. Feed costs are minimal. Certified weight in bulls and cows getting about 1.5–2 years. The meat products have distinctive characteristics – it is lean, often with different degree of marbling. The most famous breed of Charolais cows.
  • Hybrid breed resulting from crossing domestic and wild bulls zebu. Have good characteristics of precocity. Adapted to the hot climate. One beef breed, Santa Gertrudis.

In addition, meat breeds of cows is not always homogeneous within the population, causing the need to form a herd. There are individuals with increased yield, they are, as a rule, allocated in a separate group and participate as improvers for meat and dairy breeds of cows.

The Aberdeen-Angus breed of beef cattle

One of the beef breeds that are well adapted in temperate latitudes, often take root in the Northern regions.

Aberdeen Angus cows have compact muscular physique. They have rounded, well developed thighs. A deep chest. Hornless head of a small size. Legs and neck look short. Color black, rarely red.

Aberdeen

Aberdeen Angus beef cattle

Calves are born at 25 kg a Daily weight gains are in the order of 0.8 kg. The largest bulls reach 1 so on average weight of calves up to 800 lbs. Cows up to 550 kg. milk Yield do not exceed 1.4 tons per year.

Advantages of the Aberdeen-Angus breed of cows:

  • High flavor characteristics of meat products.
  • Maturity.
  • Ability to acclimatize to adverse climatic zones.
  • Healthy immune system.

At Grodno breeding you can buy heifers of Aberdeen-Angus.

Belgian blue cows

Among beef cattle some breeds where there is almost unlimited muscle growth.

So as a result of long breeding and selection was bred Belgian blue cow with an unusual body type. Heavy animals are raised, hypertrophic musculature. They have a thin leather and not very thick wool, often white-blue hue. Rare – red, piebald or black. Legs strong, but short. Typically meat body type: deep chest, wide back, massive hip. Powerful, long neck.

Belgian blue cows

Belgian blue cow.

Meat productivity deserves separate attention: the big bulls weigh up to 1.25 t, the cows up to 0.9 T. the characteristics necessary to note the high yield to 4.5 tons per year. To the slaughter prepared, starting from one year of age. Bulls thus reach 470 kg, heifers – 370 kg. at the age of two ground, respectively, 770 and 550 kg.

Among the benefits of the Belgian blue breed cows emit:

  • High output of meat products.
  • level-headed temperament.
  • Quick weight gain.

Disadvantages are closely connected with the exterior:

  • Breed cows has a low frost.
  • Unstable immunity.
  • There are problems with calving cows need human help, until caesarean section.

Hereford cattle

Many regional breeds of cows for meat production are often adapted Hereford cattle. At the moment it is one of the largest populations.

The characteristic red color of the body with reliably inherited white spots: the head, neck, chest, abdomen easily detected in other breeds of beef. The Hereford squat barrel-shaped body, deep chest, powerful legs. The back is wide. On a small head like the lowered horns. The coat is curly in the winter longer.

Hereford

Hereford breed

Tender and juicy "marble" beef has excellent taste characteristics. Calves are born weighing up to 36 kg, depending on the method of fattening the gain can reach 1.5 kg. Cow gain from 600 kg while bulls – from 1 t

The advantages of the breed include the following characteristics:

  • Stability of the immune system.
  • Simplicity and quick acclimatization.
  • The hotel does not require human intervention, calves high viability.

Disadvantages Herefords are also low yield. Calves need feeding literally from the moment of occurrence.

At Grodno breeding you can buy heifers Hereford.

Kalmyk breed of beef cattle

Undemanding and hardy Kalmyk cows are adapted to life on poor pastures and extreme temperature changes. Weathering long stretches, they, nevertheless, are quickly gaining ground.

Harmonious, compact build. Strong bones. The high mobility. A uniformly developed body with a broad back and powerful chest. Wool red color with white markings, tight, double, provides reliable protection from cold, dry winds and heat. Fat accumulates evenly between the muscles and under the skin. Legs of medium length.

Kalmyk

Kalmyk breed

Calves are born at 25 lbs. weight Gain to 0.9 kg per day. Adult bulls are gaining up to 1 ton; cows, 550 kg For slaughter ready in eighteen months of age or when calves weigh 550 kg. Milk yield at the level of 1-1,2 t recordsmens – up to 3 tonnes per year.

The dignity of Kalmyk breed cows:

  • Hardy. Can easily adapt to unstable temperature regime.
  • is Unpretentious, unable to contain year-round grazing.
  • Rich milk (up to 4.5%).
  • Self-calving.
  • Delicious marbled meat.

Disadvantages:

Kazakh white-headed breed of the meat

The result of crossbreeding Herefords, Kalmyk and Kazakh native cows, which provided a great beef breeds adapted to local conditions. The Kazakh white-headed breed of cows strong meat body type. Deep protruding chest. Massive thighs. Wide, smooth back. The head is small, short horns. Feet average. Color fully complies with the Hereford breed cows.

Calves are born alone and weigh up to 27 kg weight Gain up to 1 kg in an Adult cow is a little less bull: up to 600 kg, while males gained up to 1 T. At the age of eighteen months, the calves weigh 500 kg and ready for the slaughter.

Kazakh white

Kazakh white-headed breed of the meat.

Dignity of the Kazakh breed of cows are:

  • adaptability to harsh climate and poor feed.
  • Endurance.
  • "Marbling" of meat.
  • simplicity of maintenance.

Santa Gertrudis

As a result of crossing the wild bulls and the famous Zebu Shorthorn beef the breed was cattle, who calmly tolerates high temperatures, poor diets and no special demands as to the contents.

Santa Gertrudis has a large muscular physique dry. Body advanced, elongated, with a pronounced hump in the region of the nape. The sacral portion is slightly lowered. The head is medium. The ears hang down. The chest is deep, powerful with a sagging dewlap. Legs are strong. Red color, sometimes with light markings, hooves are black.

Santa-Gertruda

Santa Gertrudis

The weight of the calf at the appearance of about 30 kg. Bulls gain of 0.8–1 t Cows a little less up to 600 kg. Thanks to the good level of average daily gain (1.2 kg) calves can be cut already at 8 months of age. Bullheads average to this point weigh 230-250 lbs. Milk average, often only enough milk for the calves.

The positive traits of beef cows:

  • Endurance.
  • Simplicity. Keeps meat characteristics even in conditions of scarce South pasture.
  • the Ability to make long passages.
  • Quick set of certified weights.
  • Adaptation to elevated temperatures.

Charolais breed

Among the famous meat breed cows not to mention Charolais. Cattle, giving great lean meat was bred in France. Animals are still used as draft animals: they can freely operate up to 15 years and not be afraid that the meat will eventually deteriorate.

Charolais cattle breed has a distinctive color from whitish to yellowish-cream in different shades and saturation. The body type is typical for beef. Large, massive animals with clearly knolls stood out muscles. Chest, back, sacrum broad. Thighs powerful. The proportions of the rear and front of the same. Small head, which is crowned by a powerful, short neck.

Charolais breed

Charolais breed

The weight of the calf at birth often exceeds 30 kg. weight Gain, depending on the method of feeding is 1-2 kg. In the result, the big bulls, they become real powerhouses with a mass not less than 1 ton Sometimes, it reaches up to 1.6–2 T. Holsteins high-milk Cows: in a year you can get yields in the range of 2.5–4 tons Weight in females not more than 800 kg.

Advantages:

  • Possibility of long operation of bulls and cows on the farm.
  • High meat and milk productivity.
  • Maturity.
  • Simplicity.

Among the shortcomings of the Charolais breed of cows:

  • Cows are unable to calve without human assistance.
  • Genetic diseases, which affect the exterior of cattle.

Shorthorn breed

Shorthornon a long history of breeding – more than two centuries. The harmoniously proportioned cattle often ornate red suit. Cows have a wide body with rounded shapes and elongated back. The head is small. In the population there are comolete. Muscle mass increases uniformly. Breasts and hips are massive. Skeleton thin. Legs rather short. In winter the coat begins to curl.

With two lines of cattle (beef and dairy type) Shorthorn have a high yield. Often she comes to 4.5 tons per year. Cows weigh 500 kg and Bulls are larger – up to 0.9–1 t Average daily gain of about 1.2–1.5 kg. At one year of age bulls weigh up to 420 kg.

Shorthorn breed

Shorthorn breed

Advantages:

  • High yield.
  • Gainer.
  • Excellent dietetic properties of meat products.

Disadvantages:

  • Weak reproductive potential.
  • Demanding of conditions.
  • Low immunity.

As a rule, properties of meat products depends largely on the conditions of detention: in intensive fattening is a more fatty beef. When feeding under natural conditions, grazing, vegetable. With the alternation of feed – "marble". Usually calves beef cows remain long enough suckling, which gives them immunity and rapid growth.